Pezzottaite Journals follows ‘Chicago Manual of Style’, ‘MLA Citation Style’, and ‘Harvard Business School Citation Guide’, although exceptions are made to conform to industry standards where appropriate.

A general rule of thumb for formatting: The Simpler, The Better’. Keep in mind that yours is one of hundreds of entries, and we need to maintain uniformity so that readers can locate what they need. If you spend lots of time formatting to include special fonts, complicated indents, or running heads, this will all be ignored by the typesetter. The data itself is what will be converted to both the print version and online version; the formatting will not.

We do not require and advanced understanding of typesetting or style design. We do, however, include the instructions below for those who find using custom styles much easier than relying on auto-formatting. This document uses most preferred formatting settings as an example, with the following exceptions:

This document uses most preferred formatting settings as an example, with the following exceptions:

  • It is single-spaced;
  • We've added a style named "Section";
  • The heading outline levels are of one greater value than specified.

General Formatting

Do not try to format your manuscript as if it were typeset; this will make it very difficult for reviewers to insert comments or suggestions. Please keep formatting of your entry simple and consistent: Avoid unnecessary styling: unusual fonts and indents will be discarded when the entry is typeset, and may make it difficult for reviewers and editors to understand. Be consistent in use of italics, symbols, and special characters.

Pezzottaite Journals general formatting preferences are as follows:

  • Margins: 1-inch all around;
  • Running Headers or Footers: Page number only (to allow for blind reviews);
  • Justification: Justify;
  • Line Spacing: Single line, no leading (no space above or below);
  • Indents: None;
  • Spelling: English (U.S.);
  • Default Paragraph Font: 10 pt. Times New Roman;
  • Case: Use upper and lowercase; Do Not Use all caps, even in headings, as special terms (most notably acronyms) may become confused.  

Paragraph Formatting

Headings Formatting

Set Headings as follows:

Level 1 Heading ("Heading 1"): 16-pt., Upper and Lower Case Bold
Level 2 Heading ("Heading 2"): 11-pt., Upper and Lower Case Bold Italics
Level 3 Heading ("Heading 3"): 11-pt.; Upper and Lower Case Bold Italics, Indent

For standard text paragraphs, insert an extra hard return between paragraphs, but not after headings or before or between bulleted list items.

The following paragraph styles are also suggested:

  • Bullets: If slugs (the text that heads the bulleted item, such as "Bullets:" here) are used, set them in bold or italics. Please be consistent with slug usage; i.e., if one bulleted item in a list has a slug, every item in that list must have a slug.
  • Level 1 = solid circle, ¼ - inch hanging indent;
                  - Level 2 = em-dash, ¼ - inch indent with hanging indent at ½ inch.
    Text following a Level 2 but still belonging to the previous Level 1 should be indented (but without a bullet) by ¼ inch.
  • Numbered Lists: Number sequentially with Arabic numerals.
  • Outlines: Do Not  set your entire manuscript in outline form. Set each level with a ¼ - inch hanging indent that is ¼ - inch greater than the previous level. Number with the following sequence:

    • Level 1: Capital roman numerals, bold, followed by a period (I.II.IV., etc.);
    • Level 2: Capital letters, roman (not italics or bold), followed by a period (A., B., J., etc.);
    • Level 3Arabic numbers, roman, followed by a period (1., 2., 3., 23., etc.);
    • Level 4: Lowercase letters, italics, followed by a right-parenthesis (a), b), c), r), etc.);
    • Additional levels: Avoid using outlines with more than four levels; it becomes problematic to typeset such lists in the final, two-column product.

Let your word processor handle the formatting. Do not use:

  • Section breaks;
  • Manual page breaks;
  • Manual line breaks;
  • End-of-line hyphenation;
  • Right-hand justification;
  • Full justification.

Short quotations within the body of text should be presented: "Between quotation marks and italicised" (followed by author-date in parentheses).

Full paragraph quotations should be presented:

"Between quotation marks, italicised and indented" (followed by author-date in parentheses).


Avoid the use of footnotes (with the exception of in tables). These become problematic in typesetting appropriately in the print product and become a problem in the online product. If you wish to include a parenthetical remark, incorporate it in the appropriate paragraph, or add it as a paragraph following the appropriate paragraph.

Manuscript Cover

The elements (Title, subtitle (if any), author’s name, affiliation, and e-mail) should be the first page of the manuscript itself. Each of these elements may assist us in locating skilled reviewers; we keep the author information separate from the body of the manuscript to facilitate blind reviews.

Respective affiliation’s addresses and e-mails of co-authors should be clearly indicated. You might wish to afford approximately 50 words of biographical information on authors.

The main title of the paper should be kept relatively short, approximately 50 characters including spaces, however inclusion of a subtitle might aid in clarification.

Any entry titles in the manuscript itself will be ignored.

As a final step, we will do a review of all entry titles again after they have gone into production. This will be when the titles are finalized. Always be aware that this may occur even after you have reviewed your proofs.

Author Affiliations

We will need the following information for each author:

  • Department: Optional. Branch, office, etc., within the institution below;
  • Institution: Company, University, Governmental office, etc.;
  • City: Please list the English equivalent;
  • State / Province / Territory:  Include only in countries in which it is standard (India, U.S.A., Canada, Australia);
  • Country: Please include the standard name for your country.

This information will appear at the top of your typeset entry, as well as in the front matter for the print edition. Please make sure you fill in all the information in the English equivalence, if available. This information is not for mailing purposes.

Abstract & Keywords

The abstract is a brief (250 words or fewer) description of your work. This will be available to the public on the online version to assist users in determining if your entry will be of interest. Do not refer to any of the following:

  • Figures;
  • Tables;
  • Equations;
  • References;
  • Repetition of parts of the introduction.

The keywords will be available in the online product and weights the results of searches. It also assists the indexers for the print product. Each entry must have 5 - 10 keywords.

Manuscript Components 

In order to facilitate blind reviews, do not use any authors' names in the file name, header, footer, or within the manuscript itself.

Assemble the text in the following sequence:

  • Introduction;
  • Text;
  • Conclusion;
  • Acknowledgments;
  • References;
  • Bibliography;
  • Table Captions;
  • Figure Captions.

Save in Microsoft Word only.

Do not embed figures or tables in your manuscript. Any embedded graphics other than equations and chemical structures will be discarded.


After a Level 1 Heading "Introduction", include a few introductory paragraphs to your entry. Mention your goals for the entry and give an overview of the topic.

Body of Text

Begin the body of your text with a meaningful Level 1 Heading. Continue writing on the topic, including additional Level 1 Headings as appropriate.


After a Level 1 Heading "Conclusions", summarize your topic and briefly touch on future prospects (if applicable) in roughly one or two paragraphs.


Feel free to mention individuals, organizations or institutions that provided valuable assistance to you in the development of your manuscript under the Level 1 Heading "Acknowledgments". If your entry is based in part on one of your previous works, enter the disclaimer here, with complete details for the previous publication. Make sure that all necessary permissions have been obtained from the publisher even if you are the original author.

References & Bibliography & Source Lines


After a Level 1 Heading "References", list sources cited in order of their appearance in the text, not in alpha order.


If you have works that you wish to suggest but have not cited them directly in text, list them alphabetically after a Level 1 Heading "Bibliography".

Compliance with reference format instructions will significantly reduce manuscript production time.

Cite references in the body of the text by number only using parentheses or brackets; e.g. (1) or [3-5]. Avoid citing new references in the introduction or conclusion sections. List the references themselves in the reference section at the end of the entry, in the order of appearance in the text. Do not list references in alphabetical order.

Include works of interest not cited directly in text in a bibliography following the references. These should be listed in alphabetical order by lead author's last name.

Provide complete information for each reference, bibliography, and source line. Do not use Ibid., op cit., or include annotations with the references. As stated earlier, footnotes should be avoided throughout the manuscript.

Here are some common elements in many of the reference types specified below:

  • Author NamesInclude the names of all authors. Do not use "et al." in place of author names. Separate author names with semicolons. End the author field with a period.
    <Last name>, <first initial or name> <middle initial or name>, <suffix>. (e.g., Thomason, Donald L., II.);
  • Article Title: Do not use special formatting or quotation marks. End the article title field with a period;
  • Standard Journal Abbreviation or Title: Do not abbreviate one-word journal names. Use a period at the end of each abbreviated name (however, if you use the full journal name, do not end the title field with a period – see examples below). Standard journal abbreviations are available on the web sites of abstracting services, including Chemical Abstracts, Biological Abstracts, ISI, and Medline;
  • Publication InformationYear boldface type ending with a comma. Volume italic type. Issue number enclosed in parentheses, spaced from the volume number. Volume (Issue) field ends with a comma;
  • Pagination InformationComplete pagination range is recommended. Use either page range or initial page number only. End the pagination field with a period. Do not use "p." or "pp.";
  • Meeting Date Information: Date of meeting format should be <month> space <date>, <year>, e.g., Nov 17, 1999. There should not be a period after the abbreviation or name of the month. The full name of the month may be used;
  • Abstracts: Use the letter, number, or combination letter and number designator for the paper, e.g., INORG-275. Do not include the word "abstract" prior to the designator.

Refer ‘MLA (7th Edition) Quick Reference’, ‘MLA Citation Style’, ‘Harvard Business School Citation Guide', ‘APA (6th Edition) Referencing’, or ‘References Bibliography’ for citation.

Figures, Tables, Numbered Chemical Structures, & Numbered Equations

We strongly encourage the use of graphics, tables, charts, and photographs to enhance the value of your entry. We prefer that these illustrations are original; Refer "Copyright Statements & Re-Use Permissions" for further information. All figures must have captions that identify what is shown and explain how it is relevant to the text of the entry. Refer our ‘Supplementary Files Guidelines’ for submitting figure files in the original format.

All tables, graphs, diagrams and other drawings should be clearly referred to and numbered consecutively and all figures must have captions. In all figures taken or adapted from other sources, a brief note to that effect is obligatory, below the caption. Text within large tables and images may be reduced in size in order to fit the page.

All figures, tables, chemical structures, and numbered equations must be mentioned at least once within the body of the text (either parenthetically or within a sentence) to suggest placement for the typesetters. These elements must be mentioned only in the body of the text: do not cite in the introduction or conclusions. Number them sequentially by type (e.g., Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3; Table 1, Table 2, Table 3; Eq. 1, Eq. 2, Eq. 3). Bundle figures and tables (e.g., Fig. 1a, Fig. 1b, Fig. 1c) only if the bundled items have a substantial relation to each other.

Do not embed complex mathematical equations and chemistry within a paragraph; display them by placing them on a separate line and numbering to the far right.

MathType 5 or Equation Editor may be used for simple equations in MS Word.

Embed equations and chemical structures inline. For example, in Microsoft Word, when you double-click on the image, select Layout > Wrapping Style > Inline with text.

Table & Figure Captions

Always include a table title and figure caption; if the table or figure caption is not listed at the end of the document, it runs the risk of being deleted. List all Table Captions sequentially, including all source lines. Then list all Figure Captions sequentially, also including source lines. You may repeat the table captions and their source lines with the tables in the document that contains all the tables, but Do Not include the captions or source lines in the figure files.

Define all abbreviations in the table or figure within the caption, or as follows:

  • Tables: use footnotes to spell out abbreviations. Footnote citations should be either superscript lowercase letters (abc), or lowercase letters in square brackets ([a], [b], [c]).
  • Figures: use a boxed legend with samples of the abbreviation, line style, icon, etc. This should be a part of the figure itself.

Important: Tables and figures should not be embedded in the text document.


Include the caption and source line at the beginning of each table. Create tables using Microsoft Word's table function or using the tab key (hitting the key only once between columns); do not embed pictures or frames from other programs. Excel spreadsheets may also be submitted, as long as all links to outside data have been broken. Maintain a consistent typeface, size, and double-spacing. It is strongly recommended that tables are formatted using set tabs (left, center, right, decimal, etc.), not by tabbing or spacing over until it "Looks Right". Try to avoid landscaped (very wide) tables; these become problematic in displaying online.


Again, list figure captions at the end of the manuscript; do not place captions below or within artwork.

Create a separate file for each figure. Include colour where available, but be aware that the print product will be in black and white. Set colour images in RGB (not CMYK). Make sure colours are suitable for gray scaling. Do not refer to colour in captions or in the text (e.g., "Te Blue Line" or "The Green Region") as this will be meaningless in the print product.

Final Figure Size

Always be aware that the final size will be approximately 4 inches (10 cm) wide. Make sure that all labelling (text that appears within the figure) will scale to this width at about 8 pt. Helvetica is preferred; another standard serif font, such as Times, is acceptable. Use upper and lowercase; do not use all caps.

Preferred Figure Formats

Follow the following guidelines for resolution and format:

  • Pixel Art: Continuous tone images, such as photos and micrographs.

    • Preferred formats: .TIFF, .EPS (encapsulated PostScript®), or PDF;
    • Resolution: no less than 300 dpi.
  • Vector Graphics: Line art, such charts and drawings.

    • Preferred formats: Adobe® Illustrator, .EPS (encapsulated PostScript®), or PDF. Remember to embed all fonts;
    • Resolution: N/A; however, if the formats above are unavailable, Set at 900 dpi.

Do not increase the resolution of a lesser file; a 72 dpi GIF converted to a 900 dpi TIFF still has the graininess of the 72 dpi image; likewise, a .25-inch-wide image with a resolution of 300 dpi enlarged to a 4 - inch-wide image at 300 dpi is still as grainy as the original. Be sure to deliver images at the sizes and resolutions prescribed. Lower resolutions or smaller sizes result in poor reproduction quality; higher resolutions or bigger images result in unnecessarily larger files.

Art that has been scanned or pasteurized should be avoided. If this is truly the only version available and the figure is crucial to the entry, save as TIFF or EPS with a resolution of 300 ppi (pixels per inch) at 100% of final size.

Use 8 pt Helvetica upper / lower case for labels within the art and for part labels (A, B, C, etc.). Lines or rules within art should be no thinner than ½ pt.

Every figure and table needs a credit line, unless it is based entirely on original data and has not been published elsewhere. Material in the public domain should have a credit line acknowledging its source. The format of the credit line should be consistent with the reference format guidelines in this document. The credit line should incorporate any special wording provided by the copyright holder.