Publishing Quality Contents

How to Attract & Publish High Quality Content?

Below are some ideas that encouraged submissions in your journal:

Make use of your Editorial Board

Editorial board members should be encouraged to contribute articles to the journal, either by submitting their own work (subject to rigorous peer-review) or soliciting articles from their colleagues. Refer heading below ‘Make the Most of Your Editorial Board’ section for more information.

Appoint a Reviews Editor

Review papers often attract more citations than regular articles. If appropriate, consider appointing a dedicated Reviews Editor to solicit review articles for the journal.

Special Issues

Special issues on hot topics can attract new authors and readers and are an opportunity to invite prominent scholars in the field to guest edit. Refer our ‘Special Issues Guidelines’ for more information.


Conferences can generate ideas for articles and provide networking opportunities in order to expand your base of reviewers and contributors. Consider running a writing workshop at a suitable conference, or arranging a ‘Meet the Editor’ session. These can be good ways of introducing yourself and your journal to a new audience or to young scholars.

Please note that we cannot accept material that has already been published; any article submitted to the journal should be substantially different from the version published in the conference proceedings.

Providing Excellent Author Services

If the author of a submitted paper has a positive experience then they are much more likely to place a second paper in the journal. Timely responses to enquiries, quick review decisions and constructive feedback from reviewers can all contribute to a positive experience. 

You might like to let authors know if their article has been highly downloaded or cited and encourage them to submit other articles to the journal.

Is your Aims and Scope up-to-date?

Review your Aims and Scope regularly to ensure that it accurately reflects what is currently being published in the journal. Ensure that your submission guidelines are clear and unambiguous. Also consider publishing your peer review policy on your journal website, if you do not already do so. This reassures potential authors that the journal employs a high degree of quality control.

How to Get Published?

Writing & Submission

For a useful overview of the submission process and tips on how to get your article published, refer our ‘Tips to Get Manuscript Published'. When you are ready to submit your manuscript, refer our ‘Manuscript Submission Checklist’.

Helping Readers Find Your Article Online – Advice on Writing Abstracts

Ensuring that your article is easily ‘discoverable’ online is of paramount importance. Search engines use a variety of factors to determine search result rankings to advice on how to optimise your article in search results.

English-Language Editing Services

Authors who would like to refine the use of English in their manuscripts might consider using the services of a professional English-language editing company.

Please be aware that Pezzottaite Journals has no affiliation with these companies and makes no endorsement of them. An author's use of these services in no way guarantees that his or her submission will ultimately be accepted. Any arrangement an author enters into will be exclusively between the author and the particular company, and any costs incurred are the sole responsibility of the author.

Publishing Timeframe 

Publishing Online (Online Version)

Pezzottaite Journals guarantees publication of accepted papers within 2 weeks of acceptance. Online volume of Journal (s) is ‘Double Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Journals’ published on site ‘QUARTERLY’ with online ISSN number.

Publishing Offline (Print Version)

Pezzottaite Journals guarantees publication of all print volumes within one month of acceptance. Print volume of Journal (s) is ‘Double Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Journals’ published ‘QUARTERLY’ with print ISSN number.

Manuscript Submission Guidelines 

 Submitting your Article 

Author can submit an article to any of Pezzottaite Journals, ensuring the manuscripts suits journal theme and objectives. Online submission and review of manuscripts is mandatory for all types of papers. Please read and follow the instructions for authors given below. When your manuscript has been prepared in accordance with this Policy and ‘Copyright Statements & Reuse Permissions’ and you are ready to submit online. Locate the journal in which you would like to submit your manuscript, register in the journal and, then log on to the journal by entering the User_id and Passwords. If submission is completed successfully, an e-mail acknowledgement is send to the provided Email_id. Refer our ‘Manuscript Submission Checklist’ before uploading the manuscript on site.

Supplementary Files

Selected journals are able to support supplemental files. Please check the submission guidelines for the relevant journal if you would like to submit supplemental material. Refer our ‘Supplementary Files Guidelines’ for more information.

Artwork Guidelines

Illustrations, pictures and graphs, should be supplied with the highest quality and in an electronic format that helps us to publish your article in the best way possible. Please follow the guidelines below to enable us to prepare your artwork for the printed issue as well as the web site.

  • Checklist
  • Please read carefully through all of the following points:

    • Resolution
      Artwork Guidelines
    • Images should be supplied as bitmap based files (i.e. with .tiff or .jpeg extension) with a resolution of at least 300 dpi (dots per inch). Line art should be supplied as vector-based, separate .eps files (not as .tiff files, and not only inserted in the Word or pdf file), with a resolution of 600 dpi.

    • Format
    • TIFF, or PDF. MS Office files (Word, Power point, Excel) are also accepted provided they meet certain conditions.

    • Colour Mode
    • Please note that coloured images will be published only ‘Online’ Therefore, it is important that you supply images that are comprehensible in black and white as well (i.e., by using black and while pattern or dotted lines).

    • Dimensions
    • Check that the artworks supplied match or exceed the dimensions of the journal. Images can not be scaled up after origination

    • Fonts
    • The lettering used in the artwork should not vary too much in size and type (usually sans serif font as a default).

  • Artwork on Disk
  • If you can't submit the artwork electronically, you may send a disk by post. Possible formats are: CD / DVD. Figure captions should be submitted with the original main text. Please always supply hard copies along the disk or accompanying e-mails detailing the content.

  • Word Files (Word, Excel, PowerPoint)
  • Microsoft Office is essentially a family of applications that can be used to produce a variety of document types including written documents, spreadsheets, presentations and databases. Although we prefer artwork files in TIFF or PDF format, we are also aware that a number of authors already (for convenience) submit their artwork in MS Office formats and therefore we will continue to support these submission types now and in the future.

    Check for more information at http://www.microsoft.com/office;

    For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to http://cpc.cadmus.com/da.

    Refer our ‘Manuscript Formatting & Style’ and re-check your manuscript before submission with us for review and publication.

Contributor Agreement, Copyright & Permissions 

Pezzottaite Journals requires the Principle author (s) as the rights holder to sign a ‘Declaration & Copyright Assignment’ Form for all articles we publish, which is an agreement under which the author transfer the copyright in the work and even grants the exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. 

Pezzottaite Journals takes issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the Pezzottaite Journals Brand and Journals against malpractice.  Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article (removing it from the journal); taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author’s institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; banning the author from publication in the Pezzottaite Journals, or appropriate legal action.

Off prints & Reprints

At Pezzottaite Journals, we know the importance of wide dissemination of your work. That is why our offprint ordering service allows you to select the format and quantity of offprints that best suit your requirements.

Pezzottaite Journals supports a range of author benefit policies with respect to providing authors with a final PDF of their article and a copy of the print issue in which their article was published; and opportunities to either receive or purchase off prints. Refer our ‘Information To Subscribers’ for more information. 

Journal makes available (through internet) the finally accepted version (revised version, if any) of manuscript to the principal author / author responsible for correspondence, for final proof reading / check. No changes in the accepted thought-contents are allowed at this stage. The Authors should note that the ultimate responsibility for ensuring the accuracy, inclusion of up-to-date suggested revisions rests upon them.

Version of Record & Corrections Policy

The version of an article which is published online is considered the final and complete version. Even though it is possible to correct this version, Pezzottaite Journals policy – in common with other publishers-is not to do so, except in very limited circumstances.

Once published, we will not make alterations to an article itself, except where legally required too. Refer our ‘Manuscript Submission Checklist’ properly before submission of the manuscript.

In the case of an article where there is a major error, or one that could prove dangerous, we will attach an electronic erratum sheet detailing the correction to the online version of the article. In the print version of the journal we will print an erratum.

Conflicting Interests Policy

A Declaration of Conflicting Interests policy refers to a formal policy of a journal to require a conflict of interest statement or conflict of interest disclosure from a submitting or publishing author.

Pezzottaite Journals requires a signed ‘Conflict of Interest Disclosure’ Form, Article and ‘Declaration & Copyright AssignmentForm to consider a manuscript for publication.

The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) states in its Guidelines on Good Publication Practice (2003) that:

‘Conflicts of interest arise when authors, reviewers, or editors have interests that are not fully apparent and that may influence their judgments on what is published. They have been described as those which, when revealed later, would make a reasonable reader feel misled or deceived.’

Many scholars, researchers and professionals may have potential conflicts of interest, that could have an effect on – or could be seen to – have an effect on their research.  As a result, Pezzottaite Journals require a formal ‘Conflict of Interest Disclosure’ Form enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated published article.

A potential conflicting interest might arise from relationships, allegiances or hostilities to particular groups, organizations or interests, which may influence excessively one’s judgments or actions. The issue is particularly sensitive when such interests are private and/or may result in personal gain.

Articles will be evaluated fairly and will not necessarily be rejected when any competing interests are declared. 

Editor Obligations Regarding Conflicting Interests

The same obligations equally apply to editors or guest editors writing an editorial that will be published in the journal.

How do I Make a Declaration?

Please include such a declaration at the end of your manuscript after any acknowledgements and prior to the references, under a heading ‘Conflict of Interest Statement’. If no declaration is made the following will be printed under this heading in your article: ‘None-Declared’. Alternatively, you may wish to state that ‘The Author (s) declare (s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

Additional Information

You may find the following useful resources to refer to for more information on Conflict of Interest policies, existing codes of practices and more general good practice in relation to journal publication ethics:

Guidelines published on good publication and the Code of Conduct by the Committee of Publication Ethics (COPE).

Refer ‘A Common Standard for Conflict of Interest Disclosure’ for more information, published by Center for Science in the Public Interest.

What Next After Acceptance?


We are conscious of, and understand, how keen authors are to see their work published. Pezzottaite Journals maintain regular communication with its staff, editors and authors throughout the production process.


We will email a PDF of the proofs to the corresponding author. Please return corrected proofs as soon as possible, or by the deadline requested, so as not to delay the publication process.


At Pezzottaite Journals, we place a strong emphasis on the highest possible production standards. We attach a great deal of importance to our quality service levels starting from copy-editing, typesetting, printing, and online publication. We also seek to uphold excellent author relations throughout the publication process.

Online Publication

Pezzottaite Journals are benefited through electronic journal platform. It allows final revision articles (completed articles in queue for assignment to an upcoming issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a final print and online journal issue. This significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication.

E-Prints & Complimentary Copies

Pezzottaite Journals supports a range of author benefit policies with respect to providing authors with a final PDF of their article, a copy of the print issue in which their article was published and opportunities to purchase offprints.

Promoting Your Article

If you think your article may be suitable for promotion, please flag this to the Editor-In-Chief as early as possible in the publishing process. We have a variety of different promotional channels at our disposal to ensure your article reaches the widest possible audience. Refer our ‘Philosophy for Impact of Research’ and ‘Help Us Promote Your Journal’ for more information.

Promote Your Work

Using Social Media 

The phenomenal rise over the last five years of online social media has affected the journals market profoundly, as users place a premium on active engagement with the scholarly community. While social media is increasing in importance, there are other options to draw attention to your latest work: email your networks or post on listservs and websites about your recent publication, and add your article to your course reading list (if appropriate).

Journal content is not limited to text; it now includes video, images, datasets, photographs and maps. Multimedia content aids discoverability of your research and allows users to engage with your publication – it allows for a two-way conversation rather than one-way communication. Users are increasingly searching across all types of content for answers to their research. Pezzottaite Journals social media strategy aims to increase the visibility of our journals by ensuring their content is where the user wants to start their search and building on that visibility by encouraging users to engage with that content.

Press Release Scheme

Press Release scheme is available on a case by case evaluation basis to raise the visibility of particular articles, and highlight new and important research. If you think your paper may be of interest to the media, Pezzottaite Journals will evaluate and assign press release writers to create items for dissemination to the media.

A press-worthy paper should:

  • Present new research, or add new information to previous research;
  • Appeal to a general as well as a specialist audience;
  • Have a message that can be explained in lay terms
  • Reflect well on the research field, and the journal.

It is important that you share with us information on newsworthy papers as early as possible, ideally at acceptance or as soon as you are aware an important paper is coming through.

Increasing Usage & Citations

Pezzottaite Journals is committed to promote and increase the visibility of your journal and would like to work with you to promote your journal to potential readers. We are actively engaged with several social media initiatives and see this as a key way for people to engage with your newly published work. As user expectations change, it is important that your journal is visible where the user starts their search.

Journal Prizes

Introduce a best paper prize or other award in order to promote your journal to potential authors and raise your profile? The prize could be awarded to the most highly cited paper, the best paper by an early career academic or postgraduate, or simply the paper that best advances the aims and scope of the journal. The winning paper could then be promoted via the journal’s website.

If you believer that the article may be suitable for promotion, contact us at: contactus@pezzottaitejournals.net, as early as possible in the publishing process. We have a variety of different promotional channels at our disposal to ensure your article reaches the widest possible audience.

Increasing Citation & Improving Impact Factor 

Quantitative metrics are of increasing importance in the evaluation of scholarly research, as universities, governments and funding bodies try to find ways of making their hiring, funding and investment decisions according to measurable criteria. This has had a significant effect on journals publishing, with ISI well-known Impact Factor quickly brought into play as a ready-made indicator of the quality and significance of a published piece of work.

At Pezzottaite Journals we are determined to support our journal editors and publishing partners in maximising citations to the articles they publish without ever trying to ‘game’ the system, which can only compromise perceived quality.

When evaluating strategies to increase the citation performance of your journal, it is useful to consider:

Commission Papers from Highly-Cited Authors

Analysis of the most highly cited content from both your own and competitor journals reveals the most highly-cited authors who could be invited back or newly commissioned to publish in the journal or to perhaps edit a future special issue.

Identify Highly-Cited Papers in Your Journal & Related Titles

These are indicative of emerging trends and hot topics on which to commission and consider extended special issue features.

Identify Zero-Cited Papers

A percentage of may never be cited at all. Review what topics do not attract citations and use this information to feed into your publishing strategy. NB it is important to remember that some papers can take a long time to accrue citations (though of course older papers will not influence the Impact Factor) and not cited does not mean not read. Strike a balance between maximising citations and serving your readership.

Review Articles

Comprehensive review articles are likely to attract a high number of readers and citations. Active commissioning of review articles is often required; you may like to consider appointing a dedicated reviews editor for this purpose.

Special Issues

Special or themed issues on high-impact topics can attract a lot of attention and citations. Including a review article that discussed the literature can also help attract citations.

Speed of Publication

Improving the turnaround times, introducing fast track publication for potential high impact papers and timing the publication of papers with their presentation at research meetings can help with citations. 

Online First, Print Later

Publishing accepted articles online prior to print and electronic publication in the journal issue means that they can be cited earlier.

Remind Authors & Reviewers of Relevant Papers Previously Published

Though very high levels self-citation (more than 20%) can lead to being ejected from ISI, it is perfectly common for your authors to cite work from articles previously published in the journal. Reviewers could be encouraged to check that submitted papers are making sufficient reference to the journal. Making journal self-citation a condition for publication, however, or specifying particular citations to submitting authors, is unethical and not to be done.

Media Promotion

Press Release scheme is available on a case by case evaluation basis to raise the visibility of particular articles, and highlight new and important research.

Article to Volume Ratios

Number of articles or other citable items published per volume will affect the Impact Factor calculation.

Making Most of Editorial Board 

Editorial boards are an essential and valuable resource for journals but board members are often unpaid with busy professional lives and they may sit on the boards of a number of competing journals. How do you make sure you are using your boards to their full potential?

Composition of the Editorial Board

It is important to find the right balance:

  • Include people with a range of subject interests;
  • Active member’s v/s star names who are lending their prestige;
  • Members of the sponsoring society, if relevant;
  • Editorial structure: define the responsibilities of the editors, associate editors, regional editors, members of advisory board and any other job titles used.

Responsibilities of Editorial Board

Set out clearly the expected term of service and the parameters of the role: outline duties, responsibilities and expectations.

Peer Review: This is an integral part of being an editorial board member though where possible do spread the workload.

Journal Ambassadors: Board members should act as ambassadors for the journal, sourcing potential authors and readers and also potential subscribers in their region. They can also encourage their students and colleagues to read and cite the journal.

Editorial Strategy Advisors: Board memberscan be a huge source of inspiration and advice and are often happy to be involved in the development of the journal. Ask for their input into the future strategy of the journal:

  • Draw on their subject expertise;
  • What do they see as the direction for the journal – is it meeting the needs of the community?
  • Competitor comparisons – what are they doing well?
  • Ideas and innovations;
  • What is working? What is not?

Managing your Editorial Board

Some practical management tips:

  • Regularly review the balance of the board;
  • Make changes as necessary; don’t be afraid of bringing in new people;
  • Set terms – useful as a trigger to regularly refresh the board;
  • Ask for their feedback and be responsive;
  • Keep them updated of staff changes;
  • Communicate regularly – set up an email distribution list to facilitate communication throughout the year;
  • If possible, hold regular board meetings at suitable conferences;
  • Keep the board updated as to journal developments – share highlights from your Report.

Ensure that Pezzottaite Journals has postal and email addresses of all board members, to provide them with complimentary print copy and online access to the journal’s entire archive.

Working with Reviewers  

Peer review is central to the process of scholarly publishing, providing authors with valuable feedback on their work, acting as a quality control and informing the editor’s decision-making process.

If your journal uses online peer review system, you can use this to maintain a database of your reviewers and monitor how frequently you are calling on them to review for you. If you don’t use, we recommend that you build your own database of reviewers in order to track who has reviewed for you and when to help avoid overburdening reviewers wherever possible. 

Rewarding your Reviewers

Though many reviewers value the opportunity to participate in scholarly dialogues in this way as highly regarded experts in their field, by and large reviewing papers is unpaid and can add significantly to their overall workload.

The academic publishing community relies on an enormous amount of goodwill from reviewers and at Pezzottaite Journals we are keen to ensure that our reviewers feel appreciated and valued. This will hopefully encourage reviewer participation and improve the timeliness and quality of reviews.

Following will help in encouraging participation reviewers:

  • Provide reviewers with free access to journal content;
  • Acknowledge reviewers periodically in the journal;
  • Provide reviewers with feedback on the outcome of the review decision;
  • Give reviewers feedback on the quality of their review;
  • Reward the best reviewers with appointments to the Editorial Board.

At Pezzottaite Journals, we offer all reviewers free access to journals. Any reviewers appointed to the board would receive a free print and online subscription to the journal, as per our standard policy.

As a Editor-In-Chief, let reviewers know the final outcome and providing feedback on the quality of the review, especially for newer academicians, is appreciated and useful; acknowledging regular reviewers in the journal, listing them in the final issue of the year, is also a simple way of highlighting their contribution to the journal.

Improving the Quality of Reviews

Thomson Reuters has produced a report outlining the ways in which you can use online peer review systems ‘Increasing the Quality & Timeliness of Scholarly Peer Review’ to improve the peer review process.

New Journal Proposals

We are always interested in hearing ideas for potential new journals. If you have spotted a gap in the market for a new journal, please submit a proposal for consideration. To make sure that you provide us with the information that we need to properly evaluate your idea, it would be helpful if you follow our guide.

We welcome suggestions for new journals, recognizing that they provide an essential outlet for emerging areas of research. Below are the items that we like to see covered in new journal proposals? This will help us, in conjunction with external reviewers, to fully assess your proposal.

What to Include In a New Journal Proposal?

Journal proposal must cover the following key areas:

  • The aims and scope of the journal;
  • The journal's rationale (why the journal is needed);
  • The envisaged editorial structure;
  • The journal's format / level / approach;
  • The journal's target audience and market potential;

To elaborate, the following are the issues which you should address in putting the above together:


Editorial Aims & Scope

  • What are the aims and scope of the journal?
  • Who is it for, at what intellectual level and what disciplines?
  • What disciplines or sub-disciplines will be covered?
  • It is worth noting that a journal which is extremely diffuse in its cross-disciplinarily is usually the most difficult to make commercially viable, since it requires considerable (and therefore expensive) promotional coverage of a number of different areas. If at all possible, you should try and identify some 'core' target fields within which would be found the main audiences for the journal.

  • How international will the journal be and how will this be reflected in the editorial objectives? For example, how will you ensure that you receive contributions from other European (and Scandinavian) countries and the USA?
  • Again, you should note that it is generally important to us that a journal is truly international in its scope, both in terms of contributions and editorial structure. It is also a 'Fact of Journal Life' that in most instances a journal's long term financial viability is dependent on obtaining a significant proportion of its subscriptions in America. You should address the need to appeal to the American market and any implications, for example, of possible key differences, approaches and interests in the field (s) covered between the States and Europe.

  • What intentions, if any, do you have regarding foreign-language contributions? We would encourage you, for a range of practical reasons, to consider certainly initially, limiting contributions to the English language. If you wish to translate articles, you need to consider:

    • Who would undertake translation?
    • How will decisions be reached on articles in languages not known by the Editors?

Rationale for Journal

  • Why is the journal needed?
  • What is the background to the proposal in terms of the current and future development of the field?
  • How will the journal relate to relevant existing journals in Europe and the States and what will your journal offer that these do not?
  • How confident are you of not only finding a global audience for the journal, but also of generating sufficient high quality contributions?
  • What are the advantages of this project over the existing (or planned) competition? Or other existing outlets?

Editorial Board & Administration

  • Who would be the journal's editors?
  • As the journal is to be international, we would wish to see international scholars in prominent editorial positions. There are several ways to do this. For example, you could have one or more editors based in different regions (e.g. UK, Continental Europe and America) or an editor based in one of these locations with a couple of Co-editors based in the others.

  • Whom would you invite to be members of the editorial board?
  • How do you propose to handle the administration of the journal and what role, if any, do you see the editorial board as playing in this process?

Format of Journal

Here, we would appreciate some more details of how you see the content and structure of the journal. For example:

  • What will be the balance between theoretical, empirical / research based and 'Practice-Oriented' papers?
  • What will the journal feature? For example, book reviews, review essays, special thematic issues, translations of articles not yet translated into English etc.? Please include mock contents of the first two issues of the journal. These need not be real titles of actual articles but more the sort of spread of areas and authors you are planning to approach?
  • How will you deal with any issues of inter-disciplinarily?
  • How many issues would you envisage annually (We would encourage you to think about a quarterly journal)?

Market Profile / Potential

Many of the following issues will have been addressed explicitly or implicitly in the above sections but we need to have at some point in the proposal, as detailed an account as possible of the market profile and potential for the journal. For example:

  • An assessment of who, and in what fields, would subscribe to the journal. We would be relying heavily on individual subscribers at the beginning of the journal's life as well as institutions. Could you quantify (approximately) your sense of the size of the overall market in terms of numbers of potential individual subscribers?
  • Would the market be easy to reach? For example, which associations / societies would the readership belong to? Which major international conferences would they attend?
  • What is the estimated potential institutional base of the journal?
  • Where is the work in this area being done, at what sort of institutions?
  • What is the geographical spread of the work, in terms of different countries and thus the international spread of potential institutional subscribers? In particular, what is the state of the field in the USA and Europe?
  • Is there currently and / or will there be, a teaching as well as a research base for this Work to solidify the library demand?


When would you see the first issue of the journal being published?

Please refer to 'Brief of New Journal Proposal' for more information.

Publication Ethics Kit

In the area of publishing, ethics is considered as publishing ethics. Many international, national and governmental institutions worldwide concern themselves with scientific ethics.

Monitoring publishing ethics is a major aspect of the peer-review process and as such lies within the area of responsibility of the Editor-In-Chief of each journal. To enforce publishing ethics and detect misconduct, editors rely heavily on the reviews of referees, and post-publication, on comments from the scientific community at large. Fortunately, the area of science publishing is reasonably good at self-correcting, albeit sometimes later rather than earlier. In any case, every reported act of unethical publishing behaviour must be looked into, even if it is discovered years after publication.

Experienced editors may well have dealt with many publishing ethics cases, however the rules and guidelines of the community are constantly being refined and updated. In practice publishers often help guide and support editors with these matters. The Publishing Ethics Kit (PEK) has been assembled and maintained with this in mind.

What comprises ‘Publishing Ethics Kit’

The material in this resource kit consists of the following:

  • An overview of duties of editors and other parties involved in publishing ethics;
  • Form letters - Examples of appropriate letters for various situations,

When an editor is confronted with a case (or suspected case) of ethics abuse, he / she should first identify the type of unethical behaviour, using the definitions provided in each of the decision trees, then the decision trees, and their recommended action, can be followed. Flow charts from COPE are available for reference. This is often the time for the editor to discuss the case within Pezzottaite Journals and agree what action, if any, needs to be taken. Within the decision trees, reference is made to the relevant form letters and Pezzottaite Journals policies.

General Guidelines (Decision Trees)

Gather information: Who is making the complaint or raising the issue and who should then become involved?

  • Editor and complainant should always coordinate.
  • If complaints come to us through any source other than the publishing contact, the publishing contact should be contacted immediately.

Ultimately, who is the decision-maker regarding how to resolve and handle the complaint?

  • Editor-In-Chief:

    • As to the merits of the claim (plagiarism, scientific procedures, context of dispute, prior reported research, background of parties);
    • Possibly in conjunction with other editors, members of the editorial board or society, peer reviewers, experts in the field selected by the Editor-In-Chief;
    • Possibly in conjunction with the 'Other Journal' editor or publisher (especially for multiple publication issues).
  • Pezzottaite Journals may need to be involved to help document the dispute and its resolution and to provide specialist support from time to time:

    • Use the procedures outlined in this document;
    • Professional judgment of publishing contact or their manager about what ‘Best Practices’ are with respect to the complaint made and its resolution;
    • Professional advice of one kind or another (Obtain opinion external expert? Legal adviser?).

When is an ethics complaint a "legal" matter that requires legal review / support?

  • The “Obvious” times:

    • Formal legal complaint or brief filed in court;
    • Letter from attorney representing an "Aggrieved" party;
    • A complaint is made about the infringement of a legal right such as copyright, moral rights, or a right of privacy.
  • The less obvious times:

    • Plausible (from a scientific perspective) conflicting claims from several parties which cannot be resolved by the editor through the methods and procedures outlined herein (suggesting that significant factual investigation will be required);
    • Where comment is made in a notice, expression of concern, corrigendum, or retraction that might be considered defamatory (this is automatically reviewed in the case of retractions).

Documenting the Complaint / Dispute

  • The publishing contact should always help the editor to record and document the claim:

    • Prepare ‘Incident Report’ with all factual questions (who, what, when, where, why) dealt with;
    • For plagiarism and duplicate publication issues, obtain the respective texts / articles.

Due Process for Authors

When the complaint is made against our author, general rule will be that the journal editor should contact the author about whom a complaint has been made, and the author be given the opportunity to respond / comment. The editor may decide on the basis of the author response (if the author is responsive, articulates clear and convincing position - and the editor may draw inferences from the opposite as well).

Involve other Bodies or Agents?

Consider whether there are other bodies or agents that could or should be involved (if after some degree of investigation, there seems to be some merit in the complaint and the complaint seems one that would be more easily (and reasonably) investigated and solved by that other institution):

  • For plagiarism and duplicate publication, the other publisher or journal involved in publishing the other text;
  • For authorship and fraud claims, the institutions where the research was conducted;
  • For bias or unfair/inappropriate competitive acts, institutions that employ the alleged wrong-doer;
  • For conflicts of interest disclosure matters and violation of research standards, funding agency or employing institutions;
  • External linkCOPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) does take on some matters, often more ‘high-profile’ cases, when other avenues are documented as failed;
  • Note that we will not necessarily be bound by a finding of an institution or agency if such finding is not deemed reasonable by the editor (or does not appear to us to be reasonable).

Responsibility Towards Authors

Although these procedures generally assume that it is our publication and author or co-authors who are complained about, it is possible that our authors will raise a complaint with us about another publication or author:

  • Usually this should be a contact made by the Editor-In-Chief to the editor of the other journal directly;
  • Procedures to be followed generally mirror the procedures outlined herein.


  • In many cases, the communication of the complaint to the author and / or the authors' institution will itself be considered a significant sanction;
  • Other remedies (these are not exclusive) may include (in order of severity):

    • Publication of a notice, corrigendum or erratum in a future issue (which could also take the form of an 'Expression of Concern');
    • Formal retraction of the article (watermarking the article to indicate it has been retracted and publication of a notice as to the reason;
    • Formal removal of the article (the actual deletion from the electronic record, a remedy suggested only for material that invades a subject’s privacy or could cause serious harm);
    • Publication of an editorial concerning the ethical issues raised and the journal’s decision concerning the issues;
    • Decision by the editorial board on future submissions by the author or author group.
  • All sanctions should be considered and weighed carefully by the Editor-In-Chief.

Caution regarding Defamation Claims

In carrying out any investigation, great care should be taken to act fairly and objectively and not to defame any author (or complainant) in any way, which could give rise to legal liabilities, including damages. To avoid defamation claims by authors, the following guidelines should be taken into account in the investigation:

  • Any inquiries of an author’s institution should be made in terms of an “Alleged” or “Apparent” violation. The inquiries should clearly state the facts and the allegation without premature judgment of the author’s culpability.
  • Information should be gathered carefully while imparting as little information as possible about the suspicion or accusation. To assist with information gathering, Pezzottaite Journals provides form letters to use in investigating claims of unethical behaviour.

Different ‘Form Letters’

  • Intimation letter to Author (Download PDF);
  • Letter to Complainant stating Author reply (Download PDF);
  • Intimation letter to Author’s Institution briefing Author act (Download PDF);
  • Intimation letter to other Journal (who published the manuscript) briefing about the act (Download PDF);
  • Intimation letter to Funding agency briefing about the act (Download PDF);
  • Intimation letter to Reviewer about the act (Download PDF);
  • Letter to Complainant stating Reviewer reply (Download PDF);
  • Intimation letter to Reviewer’s Institution briefing about act (Download PDF).

Best Practices in Publishing Guidelines

Pezzottaite Journals is fully committed to good publication practice. Pezzottaite Journals follows the principles of ‘Committee on Publication Ethics’ and supports the application of consistent standards across the industry.

Authors submitting articles to Pezzottaite Journals agrees to the following:

  • The article has not been published before in its current or a substantially similar form. Refer our ‘Plagiarism & Originality Guidelines’ for more information;
  • The article is not under consideration with another journal;
  • The article does not contain any unlawful statements and does not infringe any existing copyright. Refer our ‘Plagiarism & Originality Guidelines’ for more information;
  • I / We have obtained the necessary permission from the copyright holder/s to reproduce in the article, in all media in all countries, and transmit via all reputable third parties, any materials including tables, diagrams and photographs not owned by me / us;
  • "Proof of Consent" has been obtained for studies of named organizations and people. (Please attach any permission documents);
  • All authors have received a final version of the article, take responsibility for the content, agree to its publication and the order of the authors listed on the paper. Refer our ‘Declaration & Copyright Assignment' Form;
  • Anyone that has made a significant contribution to the research and the paper has been listed as an author. Minor contributors have been noted in the Acknowledgements section;
  • I / We have declared any potential conflict of interest in the research. Any support from a third party has been noted in the Acknowledgements;
  • I / We have read and have adhered to the journal 'Author Guidelines' and ‘Plagiarism & Originality Guidelines’;
  • I / We agree with the terms and conditions laid in ‘Copyright Statements & Reuse Permissions’, and ‘Declaration & Copyright Assignment’ Form;
  • I / We will only deposit our own version of the article (not the Pezzottaite Journals version) in an institutional or subject repository;
  • I / We will not deposit the final version of the article into a subject or institutional repository until the article has been published by Pezzottaite Journals;
  • I / We will not permit others to electronically gather or harvest and save to a separate server my / our article.

Authors submitting articles with us do so on the understanding that, should practice that contravenes our guidelines be identified, their papers will be treated in the manner outlined below. The authors also accept that, in serious cases of misconduct or when we do not receive an appropriate apology, they will be subject to a suspension of publication within Pezzottaite Journals up to one year.

A correction notice will be placed on the online version of the article or chapter and will appear in a forthcoming issue of the journal or volume in the book series. A correction notice will take one of the following forms:

Correction Notices


An erratum indicates a publisher error or oversight that has normally been introduced or has occurred in the publication process. An erratum will appear on the online version of the paper at the abstract level in order to ensure visibility for all readers, including non-subscribers. It will also appear on the online version of the paper. Third party distributors will also be informed of the requirement to add the erratum. In the case of a journal, the erratum will also appear in the forthcoming issue or volume.


A corrigendum indicates an author error that has normally occurred prior to the paper having been submitted for publication. A corrigendum will appear on the online version of the paper at the abstract level in order to ensure visibility for all readers, including non-subscribers. It will also appear on the online version of the paper. Third party distributors will also be informed of the requirement to add the corrigendum. In the case of a journal, the erratum will also appear in the forthcoming issue or volume.

Retraction Notice

A retraction notice will only be used in serious cases of ethical misconduct or when research is seriously flawed and misleading. In normal circumstances, the paper will remain in the online version of the journal. A retraction notice will appear on the online version of the paper at the abstract level in order to ensure visibility for all readers, including non-subscribers. It will also appear on the online version of the paper. Third party distributors will also be informed of the requirement to add the retraction notice. In the case of a journal, the retraction notice will also appear in the forthcoming issue or volume.

Retraction notices will clearly state the reasons for the paper being withdrawn in a factual manner.

If a retraction notice is required for an author's work, we reserve the right to suspend publication of any future work by the author by up to one year. Any submissions by the author during this period will not be considered by any publication.

Note of Clarification

A note of clarification will be used when a point needs to be emphasized or clarified in the text but it does not constitute a correction.

Please note that any correction has to be highlighted as a stated erratum, corrigendum or note of clarification and the text cannot be amended. This is in order that the reader is aware of any changes to the text which they might have cited or referred to in their subsequent research or practice.

Expression of Concern

In cases where a conclusion is unclear or where we are unable to make a fair decision due to conflicts of interest or lack of information, we will publish an expression of concern regarding the paper. An expression of concern will appear on the online version of the paper at the abstract level in order to ensure visibility for all readers, including non-subscribers. It will also appear on the online version of the paper.

Please note that for legal reasons or when an article forms evidence in an independent hearing, we may not be able to take action until all matters have been fully resolved. It might also be necessary for us to temporarily suspend publication of the work.

Please also note that Pezzottaite Journals reserves the right to not proceed with a case if the complainant presents a false name or affiliation or acts in an inappropriate or threatening manner towards Pezzottaite Journals and staff.

Guidelines in Making Decisions about Different Ethical Misconduct Activities & Issues


Pezzottaite Journals requires that all research submitted to one of the journals is original and the author agree to these terms when completing and signing a record form. Refer our ‘Plagiarism & Originality Guidelines’ and the Committee on Publication Ethics' flowcharts for the processes that Pezzottaite Journals follows in cases of alleged plagiarism in submitted or published articles. Refer our ‘Plagiarism & Originality Guidelines’ on re-using copyrighted materials within your paper.

Redundant Publication (Dual Publication or Self Plagiarism)

Authors are required to submit original content to Pezzottaite Journals. It is only acceptable for research to be repeated if it leads to different or new conclusions or for comparisons with new data. Refer our ‘Plagiarism & Originality Guidelines’ and the Committee on Publication Ethics' flowcharts for the processes that Pezzottaite Journals follows in cases of alleged redundant publication in submitted or published articles.

Authorship Issues

In multi-authored papers, it is important that all authors that have made a significant contribution to the paper are listed. Those who have provided support but have not contributed to the research should be acknowledged in an acknowledgements section of the paper.

Authorship issues fall into three main types:

  • The exclusion of a contributor from the list of authors;
  • The inclusion of a named person who has not contributed to the paper or does not wish to be associated with the research;
  • The order of the authors on the paper and the level of contribution that they have made to the paper.

Pezzottaite Journals will endeavour to facilitate a resolution to an authorship dispute. However, as the research process is undertaken prior to the paper being submission, it is not possible for us to comment on the level of contribution by each author. Please refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics' flowcharts for the processes that we follow in cases of authorship disputes in submitted or published articles. If the matter cannot be resolved, we will refer the matter to the authors' institutions.

If all authors agree to a change to authorship on a paper, this will be presented as a corrigendum. A retraction notice will only be published when requested by all authors.

Defamation / Libel

We require that authors obtain written "Proof of Consent" for studies about organizations or people.

If inaccurate, unsubstantiated or emotive statements are made about organizations or people in a submitted paper, Pezzottaite Journals reserves the right to request changes to the text from the author or to reject the paper prior to publication.

Critiques and reviews of products and services are acceptable but comments must be constructive and must not be made maliciously.

If statements in a paper, published by us, found to be defamatory, a retraction notice will be published. In some cases and when legally required, the paper will be withdrawn from the online version of the journal. An apology will be published in a forthcoming issue of the journal or volume of the book.

Pezzottaite Journals advises all authors of case studies to inform the subject (person or organization) and to seek permission. If we consider that the study could be potentially libellous, we will require written proof of consent before placing the paper into the production process.

Fabricated Data

Please refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics' flowcharts for the processes that Pezzottaite Journals follows in cases of fabricated data in submitted or published articles. As the research is conducted prior to the paper being submission to us, it is not possible for us to adjudicate in all cases. We will endeavour to facilitate a resolution and will refer the matter to the authors' institutions when appropriate.

Unethical Research & Testing

An author must follow appropriate international and national procedures with respect to data protection, rights to privacy, child protection and medical testing on humans and animals. Authors must make available all consent forms and requisite forms from the appropriate regulatory bodies to Pezzottaite Journals. We encourage authors to demonstrate how their research contributes to the benefit of society.

If research is found to contravene international or national procedures and this is confirmed with the appropriate regulatory body, we will publish a retraction notice.

Conflict of Interest

All conflicts of interest should be declared by the author, editor or reviewer. Conflicts of interest include:

  • A financial or personal interest in the outcomes of the research;
  • Undisclosed financial support for the research by an interested third party;
  • A financial or personal interest in the suppression of the research.

A note to highlight the background to financial support for the research from third parties or any other possible conflict of interest must be added to the paper prior to review. Refer our ‘A Common Standard for Conflict of Interest Disclosure’ and submit ‘Conflict of Interest Disclosure’ Form to us.

If a conflict of interest is suspected, then this should be reported to us. We will follow the flowcharts presented by COPE in cases of a suspected conflict of interest.

In all cases, Pezzottaite Journals will:

  • Act professionally and efficiently;
  • Be fair and objective;
  • Always approach the accused party to establish their position before making a decision or committing to a course of action;
  • Ensure that we provide sufficient time for all parties to respond;
  • Keep all parties informed of decisions, including the copyright owners, editors and authors;
  • As follower of the Committee on Publication Ethics, we refer the processes highlighted in the flowcharts presented by COPE (http://publicationethics.org/);
  • It is Pezzottaite Journals responsibility to protect authors' moral rights (to be acknowledged as the author and not to be misrepresented) and to ensure the correct record of the literature.

It will not be possible to please all parties in every case. Following a fair and considered process, the final decision in any disputed case will rest with Pezzottaite Journals.

Committee on Publication Ethics (PDFs)

COPE working process is shown in detail. Please refer to ‘Flowchart Kit’. (Download PDF)

There are 17 different flowcharts designed and made available through the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), to help editors follow (COPE) Code of Conduct and implement its advice when faced with cases of suspected misconduct. These can be categorised as:

What to do if you suspect Redundant (duplicate) Publication

  • Suspected redundant publication in a submitted manuscript (Download PDF)
  • Suspected redundant publication in a published article (Download PDF)

What to do if you Suspect Plagiarism

  • Suspected plagiarism in a submitted manuscript (Download PDF)
  • Suspected plagiarism in a published article (Download PDF)

What to do if you suspect Fabricated Data

  • Suspected fabricated data in a submitted manuscript (Download PDF)
  • Suspected fabricated data in a published article (Download PDF)

Changes in Authorship

  • Corresponding author requests addition of extra author before publication (Download PDF)
  • Corresponding author requests removal of author before publication (Download PDF)
  • Request for addition of extra author after publication (Download PDF)
  • Request for removal of author after publication (Download PDF)
  • Suspected guest, ghost or gift authorship (Download PDF)
  • Advice on how to spot authorship problems (Download PDF)

What to do if a reviewer suspects undisclosed conflict of interest (CoI) in a submitted manuscript (Download PDF)

What to do if a reader suspects undisclosed conflict of interest (CoI) in a published article (Download PDF)

What to do if you suspect an ethical problem with a submitted manuscript (Download PDF)

What to do if you suspect reviewer has appropriated an author's idea or data (Download PDF)

How COPE handles complaints against editors (Download PDF)

Other than the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors, 2011 and Code of Conduct for Journal Publishers, COPE has written guidelines on the following:

Guidelines for Retracting Articles

Retraction Guidelines © 2009 COPE, is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. (Download PDF)

A Short Guide to Ethical Editing for New Editors by Margaret Rees

Becoming an editor of a journal is an exciting but daunting task especially if you are working alone without day to day contact with editorial colleagues. This short guide aims to summarize key issues and to provide links to relevant pages of the COPE website as well as those of other organisations. (Download PDF)

Guidelines for the Board of Directors of Learned Society Journals (Download PDF)

Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors (Download PDF)

Code of Conduct for Journal Publishers (Download PDF)

Responsible Research Publication - International Standards for Authors (Download PDF)

Responsible Research Publication - International Standards for Editors (Download PDF)

Responsible Research Publication - Position Statements (Download PDF)

Cooperation between Research Institutions and Journals on Research Integrity Cases - Guidance from Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (Download PDF)

Guidance for Editors: Research, Audit and Service Evaluations

Regulations regarding what type of study requires ethical approval vary worldwide.  This may lead to editors receiving submissions that do not meet the journal’s normal requirement for ethical approval. This guidance has therefore been produced by COPE as an aid to journal editorial teams who are required to review such manuscripts. (Download PDF)

How to handle Authorship Disputes: a Guide for New Researchers by Tim Albert and Liz Wager

This document aims to help new researchers prevent and resolve authorship problems.

In particular it provides: (Download PDF)

  • Suggestions for good authorship practice that should reduce the incidence of such dilemmas;
  • Advice on what to do when authorship problems do arise; and
  • A glossary of key concepts in authorship, with some reading lists and websites for those who wish to take this further.

Useful Links / Resources  


 Information on Journal Metrics And Rankings